Investigating the Relation between Factors Effecting Viral Marketing and Consumers’ Buying Intention
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to first identify the factors related to viral marketing and then explore consumer buying intention to this relatively new marketing strategy.
Design / Methodology / Approach: The study was done on primary data collected through self structured questionnaire based on five point Likert Scale. Non probability judgmental sampling was used. Seven factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Using structural equation modeling through smart PLS software, effect of these seven factors was studied on buying intention of consumer.
Findings: Our study shows that Immense Efficacy, Irrepressible and Professed Security factors are not associated with the buying intention of consumer due to viral marketing while Supportive Access, Consumer Dependency, Escalating Brand and Message Clarity are main factors associated with buying intention of consumer due to viral marketing.
Originality / Value: Advancements in communication technology have given rise to the evolution of a new electronic form of word-of-mouth i.e. viral marketing communication. Internet has extraordinarily changed the marketing gimmick and viral marketing is a very effective tool available to the marketers today. It is helping organizations to grow their business by adopting strategies to reach out to their customers. This research paper is our original research and respondents were belonging to India and US only. However, it will be interesting to examine these factors in a different cultural context. Marketers should utilize these results in marketing to support a measurable business goal.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, e-mail marketing, Internet marketing, Viral marketing
Bayus, B.L. (1985). Word-of-mouth: the Indirect Effects of Marketing Efforts, Journal of Advertising Research, 25, 31-39.
Bauer, H.H., Reichardt, T., Barnes, S.J. and Neumann, M.M. (2005), “Driving Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Marketing: A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Study”, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp.181-192
Bernardo A. Huberman ,Jure Leskovec and Lada A. Adamic (2006). The Dynamics of Viral Marketing. In ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 228–237.
Blattberg, R.C. and Deighton, J. (1991). Interactive Marketing: Exploiting the Age of Addressability, Sloan Management Review, 33 (1), 5-14.
Bruyn, A. D., and Lilien, G. L. (2008). A Multi-stage Model of Word-of-Mouth Influence through Viral Marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 25, 151–163.
Carl, W.J. (2008). The Role of Disclosure in Organized Word-of-Mouth Marketing Programs, Journal of Marketing Communications, 14 (3), 225-241.
Chu, S.C., and Kamal, S. (2008), “The Effect of Perceived Blogger Credibility and Argument Quality on Message Elaboration and Brand Attitudes: An Exploratory Study”, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 26-37.
Cruz, D. and Fill, C. (2008). Evaluating Viral Marketing: Isolating the Key Criteria, Market Intelligence and Planning, 26 (7), 743-758.
De Bruyn, A. and Lilien, G.L. (2004). A Multi-stage Model of Word-of-Mouth through Electronic Referrals, eBusiness Research Centre Working Paper, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.
Derbaix, Christian and Joelle Vanhamme (2003). Inducing Word-of-Mouth by Eliciting Surprise –Pilot Investigation, Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 99–116.
Dobele, (2007). Why pass on Viral Messages? Because they Connect Emotionally, Business Horizons, 50 (4), 291-304.
Ferguson, R. (2008), “Word of Mouth and Viral Marketing: Taking the Temperature of the Hottest Trends in Marketing”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 179-182
Frost, D. (2007). Viral Campaign Spreading [online], SFGate, Available from: , [Accessed on: 24/02/08].
Goldenburg, J., Libai, B. and Muller, E. (2001). Talk the Network: a Complex Systems look at the Underlying Process of Word-of-Mouth, Marketing Letters, 12 (3), 211-223.
Haghirian, P., Madlberger, M. and Tanuskova, A. (2005), “Increasing Advertising Value of Mobile Marketing- An Empirical Study of Antecedents”, in: Proceedings of 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, HI, USA, January 3-6, 2005
Helm, S. (2000). Viral Marketing – Establishing Customer Relationship by, Word-of-Mouse, Electronic Markets, 10 (3), 158-161.
Jurvetson, Steve, and Tim Draper (1997). Viral Marketing Found at http://www.dfj.com/files/viralmarketing.html.
Kaikati, A.M. and Kaikati, J.G. (2004). Stealth Marketing: How to Reach Consumers Surreptitiously, California Management Review, 46 (4), 6-22.
Kelly, L., Kerr, G. and Drennan, J. (2010), “Avoidance of Advertising in Social Networking Sites: The Teenage Perspective”, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 16-27
Knight, C.M. (1999). Viral Marketing – Defy Traditional Methods for Hyper Growth, Broadwatch Magazine, 13 (11), 50-53.
Kozinets, Robert V., Kristine de Valck, Andrea C.Wojnicki and Sarah J. S.Wilner (2010). Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth Marketing in Online Communities, Journal of Marketing, 74 71–89.
Muzaffar, F. and Kamran, S. (2011), “SMS Advertising: Youth Attitude towards Perceived Informativeness, Irritation and Credibility”, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 230-245
Palka, W., Pousttchi, K. and Wiedemann, D.G. (2009), “Mobile Word-of-Mouth – A Grounded theory of Mobile Viral Marketing”, Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 172-185
Reyck, B.D. and Degraeve, Z. (2003), “Broadcast Scheduling for Mobile Advertising”, Operations Research, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 509-517
Ridings, C. M., Gefe D., and Arinze, B. (2002). Some Antecedents and Effects of Trust in Virtual Communities. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11 (3-4), 271-295.
Saadeghvaziri, F. and Hosseini, H.K. (2011), “Mobile Advertising: An Investigation of Factors Creating Positive Attitude in Iranian Customers”, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 394-404
Spero, I. and Stone, M. (2004). Agents of Change: How Young Consumers are Changing the World of Marketing, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 7, 153-159. Source: Emerald [online].
Steyer, Alexandre, Renaud Garcia-Bardidia and Pascale Quester (2007). Modélisation de la Structure Sociale des Groupes de Discussion sur Internet: Implications pour le Contrôle du Marketing Viral, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 22 (3) 29-44.
Thomas, G.M. (2004). Building the Buzz in the Hive Mind, Journal of Consumer Behavior, 4 (1), 64-72.
Tsang, M.M., Ho, S.C. and Liang, T.P. (2004), “Consumer Attitudes toward Mobile Advertising: An Empirical Study”, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 65-78
Tuten, Tracy L. (2008). Advertising 2.0: Social Media Marketing in A Web 2.0 World, Praeger, Westport Connecticut.