How can corporate social responsibility survive in times of recession?

Olga Pereira, Ana F. Antunes De Sousa, Miguel Maia

Abstract


Purpose: The investigation carried out aimed to study managers’ perceptions regarding the support of socially responsible business in a context of economic recession (2008-2009). To accomplish this purpose, their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of companies will be examined according to the well-known classification by Carroll (1979).

Methodology: In order to identify managers’ perceptions of CSR, the questionnaire proposed by Maignan (2001) was used to evaluate consumers’ perceptions of CSR. The validity and reliability of the model was confirmed. Results are based on the opinions of 139 individuals with management responsibilities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) located in a European collectivist country according to Hofstede.

Findings: This research study enabled the identification of the most valuable responsibilities concerning managers’ perceptions about CSR and the results establish that the most important responsibilities are Economic, followed by Legal, Philanthropic and, finally, Ethical, in a recession context.

Research limitations: Future investigations should consider embracing qualitative methodologies in order to increase the knowledge about the perspectives that companies managers have regarding the importance of CSR and its impact in the sustainability of the firms, taking into account different time horizons periods and companies of different sizes.

Originality/value: This investigation consists in a first attempt to characterize which are the main CSR responsibilities that companies managers valued, particularly in recession times, considering SMEs from a European country, with a collectivist culture.

 

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Recessive Context, Cultural Context, and Managers’ Perceptions.

 

 

[PT]

Título: "Como a responsabilidade social corporativa pode sobreviver em tempos de recessão?"

Resumo

Objetivo: A investigação realizada teve como objetivo estudar as percepções dos gerentes sobre o apoio a negócios socialmente responsáveis em um contexto de recessão econômica (2008-2009). Para atingir esse objetivo, suas avaliações das responsabilidades econômicas, legais, éticas e filantrópicas das empresas serão examinadas de acordo com a bem conhecida classificação de Carroll (1979).

Metodologia: Para identificar as percepções dos gerentes sobre RSE, o questionário proposto por Maignan (2001) foi usado para avaliar as percepções dos consumidores sobre RSE. A validade e a confiabilidade do modelo foram confirmadas. Os resultados são baseados nas opiniões de 139 indivíduos com responsabilidades de gerenciamento em pequenas e médias empresas (PME) localizadas em um país coletivista europeu, segundo Hofstede.

Resultados: Este estudo permitiu identificar as responsabilidades mais valiosas em relação às percepções dos gerentes sobre RSE e os resultados estabelecem que as responsabilidades mais importantes são Econômicas, seguidas por Jurídico, Filantrópico e, finalmente, Ético, em um contexto de recessão.

Limitações: investigações futuras devem considerar a adoção de metodologias qualitativas, a fim de aumentar o conhecimento sobre as perspectivas que os gerentes de empresas têm sobre a importância da RSE e seu impacto na sustentabilidade das empresas, levando em consideração diferentes períodos de tempo e empresas de diferentes tamanhos. .

Originalidade/valor: Esta investigação consiste em uma primeira tentativa de caracterizar quais são as principais responsabilidades de RSE que os gerentes de empresas valorizavam, principalmente em tempos de recessão, considerando PMEs de um país europeu, com uma cultura coletivista.

 

Palavras-chave: responsabilidade social corporativa, contexto recessivo, contexto cultural e percepções dos gerentes.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bansal, P., Jiang, G. F., & Jung, J. C. (2015). "Managing responsibly in tough economic times: strategic and tactical CSR during the 2008–2009 global recession", Long Range Planning, 48(2), 69-79.

Barnett, M. L., Darnall, N., & Husted, B. W. (2015). "Sustainability strategy in constrained economic times", Long Range Planning, 48(2), 63-68.

Becker-Olsen, K. L., Taylor, C. R., Hill, R. P., & Yalcinkaya, G. (2011). "A CrossCultural Examination of Corporate Social Responsibility Marketing Communications in Mexico and the United States: Strategies for Global Brands", Journal of International Marketing, 19(2), 30-44. doi: 10.1509/jimk.19.2.30.

Bertolini, L., Wenban-Smith, A., Robiglio, M., Williams, B., van der Kooij, E., & Bertolini, L. (2011). "Planning and the Recession", Planning Theory & Practice, 12(3), 429-451. doi: 10.1080/14649357.2011.617499.

Carroll, A. B. (1979). "A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance", Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497-505. doi: 10.5465/amr.1979.4498296.

Carroll, A. B., & Shabana, K. M. (2010). "The Business Case for Corporate Social Responsibility: A review of concepts research and practice", International Journal of Management Review, 12(1), 85-105. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00275.x.

Ellis, L., & Bastin, C. (2011). "Corporate social responsibility in times of recession: Changing discourses and implications for policy and practice", Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 18(5), 294-305. doi: 10.1002/csr.254.

Evans, J. R., & Mathur, A. (2005). "The value of online surveys", Internet Research, 15(2), 195-219.

Green, T., & Peloza, J. (2015). "How did the recession change the communication of corporate social responsibility activities?" Long Range Planning, 48(2), 108-122.

Hair, J. F., Black, B., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, Upper Saddle River, US: Prentice Hall.

Ho, F., Wang, H.-M., & Vitell, S. (2012). "A Global Analysis of Corporate Social Performance: The Effects of Cultural and Geographic Environments", Journal of Business Ethics, 107(4), 423-433. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-1047-y.

Hofstede. (2013). "Hofstede National Cultural Dimensions", Retrieved 5.01.2013, 2013, from http://geert-hofstede.com/.

Jamali, D. (2008). "A Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility: A Fresh Perspective into Theory and Practice", Journal of Business Ethics, 82(1), 213231. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9572-4.

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing, (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Kline, R. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, New York: The Guilford Press.

Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Leamer, E. E. (2008). "What's a recession, anyway?", National Bureau of Economic Research.

Lee, K., & Shields, K. K. (2011). "Decision-making in hard times: What is a recession, why do we care and how do we know when we are in one?", The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 22(1), 43-60. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.najef.2010.12.001.

Lindgreen, A., Maon, F., Reast, J., & Yani-De-Soriano, M. (2012). "Guest Editorial: Corporate Social Responsibility in Controversial Industry Sectors", Journal of Business Ethics, 110(4), 393-395. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1488-y.

Maignan, I. (2001). "Consumers' Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibilities: A Cross-Cultural Comparison", Journal of Business Ethics, 30(1), 57-72. doi: 10.1023/a:1006433928640.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2003). "Nature of corporate responsibilities: Perspectives from American, French, and German consumers" Journal of Business Research, 56(1), 55-67. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00222-3.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2004). "Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 3-19. doi: 10.1177/0092070303258971.

Marwa, S., Keoy, H., Piew, T., Ling, K., & Hassan, P. (2011). "Is corporate social responsibility agenda losing momentum with recession?", International Bulletin of Business Administration(10), 155-165.

McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). "Corporate Social Responsibility: A Theory of the Firm Perspective", The Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117-127.

Michelon, G., Boesso, G., & Kumar, K. (2013). "Examining the Link between Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility and Company Performance: An Analysis of the Best Corporate Citizens", Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 20(2), 81-94. doi: 10.1002/csr.1278.

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). "Psychometric Theory", New York, NY: McGrawHill.

Quazi, A., & O'Brien, D. (2000). "An Empirical Test of a Cross-national Model of Corporate Social Responsibility", Journal of Business Ethics, 25(1), 33-51. doi: 10.1023/a:1006305111122.

Roubini, N., & Mihm, S. (2010). Crisis Economics: a crash course in the future of finance, New York: The Penguin Press.

Siltaoja, M. E., & Onkila, T. J. (2013). "Business in society or business and society: the construction of business–society relations in responsibility reports from a critical discursive perspective", Business Ethics: A European Review, 22(4).

Singh, J., Salmones Sanchez, M. d. M. G., & Bosque, I. R. (2008)

"Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility and Product Perceptions in Consumer Markets: A Cross-Cultural Evaluation", Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 597-611. doi: 10.1007/s10551-007-9457-6.

Welford, R., Chan, C., & Man, M. (2008). "Priorities for corporate social responsibility: a survey of businesses and their stakeholders", Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1), 52-62. doi: 10.1002/csr.166.

Wood, D. J. (1991). "Corporate Social Performance Revisited", Academy of Management Review, 16(4), 691-718. doi: 10.5465/amr.1991.4279616.




Copyright (c) 2015 European Journal of Applied Business and Management

ISSN: 2183-5594 

Indexing: GOOGLE SCHOLAR - LATINDEX - DRJI - ICI JOURNALS MASTER - REDIB