Determinantes da Rentabilidade Bancária: Evidências para o Setor Bancário Português

Carlos Mota

Abstract


Este artigo analisa os determinantes da rentabilidade no setor bancário português a partir de um painel de dados semestrais dos maiores bancos a operar no mercado no período 2006-2016. A metodologia utilizada parte da definição de um modelo que combina fatores internos e externos por forma a avaliar o impacto de cada um desses elementos na rentabilidade bancária. Além disso, considera sub-amostras para uma análise comparativa entre os períodos pré-crise, crise e pós-crise.

Os resultados sugerem que a rentabilidade dos bancos em Portugal é explicada pelas caraterísticas internas de cada entidade e contingências externas do mercado, embora com diferentes níveis de preponderância. O risco de crédito, avaliado pela qualidade dos ativos, a eficiência operacional, a alavancagem financeira e o crescimento dos depósitos destacam-se como determinantes específicos dos bancos com maior impacto na rentabilidade. O estudo também enfatiza a influência das condições macroeconómicas no desempenho dos bancos. Estes resultados poderão ser úteis para orientar e definir estratégias que controlem os fatores que afetam negativamente a rentabilidade do setor em Portugal.


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References


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