O sentimento de lugar e a construção dos destinos turísticos, proposta de modelo conceptual

Frederico Guilherme d'Orey

Abstract


Objetivo: O desenvolvimento turístico que se tem vivido nas últimas décadas a nível mundial, tem um significativo impacto nos lugares de destino turístico, sendo este um tema de relevância e atualidade para a comunidade científica e para os decisores políticos e económicos. A massificação do turismo cria pressões sobre os destinos, configurando-os para uma realidade não genuína do lugar onde se desenrola a atividade turística e com efeitos na perceção de valor do lugar dos visitantes. Este artigo, pretende colocar em evidência dois constructos inerentes à perceção dos indivíduos na construção do Lugar Turístico.

Desenho/metodologia/abordagem: Com o objetivo de proporcionar uma ferramenta decisional é proposto um modelo conceptual de Lugar Turístico, validado empiricamente por uma amostra de 500 inquéritos presenciais no Aeroporto Internacional de Lisboa, Portugal. Os dados foram recolhidos, nas diversas plataformas de embarque, junto de turistas não nacionais com o objetivo de registar as suas perceções sobre os lugares que acabaram de visitar. Os dados foram posteriormente sujeitos à Análise facto rial como metodologia de validação do modelo proposto.

Resultados: Os resultados conduziram à identificação de cinco fatores endógenos associados ao Sentimento de Lugar e quatro relativos ao Destino Turístico, que no seu conjunto, permitem produzir um quadro de análise com utilidade para a atividade dos decisores institucionais do sector do turismo. O modelo apresenta uma variância explicada de 54% e um KMO de 0,95 o que sugere uma boa adequação do modelo.

Limitações: No curso da investigação foram levantados alguns constrangimentos na recolha dos dados. Por via da dinâmica de fluxo do Aeroporto de Lisboa, o plano de trabalho de campo teve que ser modificado no local. Esta investigação permitiu abordar a temática do Sentimento de Lugar no marketing de destino enquadrado num modelo estatístico, contribuindo para a reflexão académica.

Implicações práticas: O modelo apresentado e sua metodologia abre vias para aprofundar o conhecimento sobre o marketing de destino e poderá ser uma ferramenta útil para os decisores políticos associados à decisão turística. Para o sector privado, as empresas de comunicação de marketing podem recorrer a este modelo para desenvolver as suas estratégias.

Originalidade/valor: O Sentimento de Lugar surge na literatura associado aos indivíduos residentes nos lugares. Esta investigação, surge na sequência do doutoramento do autor e apresenta um modelo de análise das perceções dos indivíduos não residentes, em particular de turistas que permanecem pouco tempo nos locais que visitam e produzem um determinado Sentimento de Lugar.

 

Palavras-chave: Sentimento de Lugar; Destino Turístico; Lugar Turístico; Análise Fatorial.

 

 

[ENG]

Title: "The Feeling of Place and the Construction of Tourist Destinations, Conceptual Model Proposal"

Abstract

Purpose: The tourism development that has been going on in the last decades worldwide has a significant impact on tourist destination places, being a relevant and topical issue for the scientific community and for the political and economic decision makers. The massification of tourism creates pressures on the destinations, setting them to a non-genuine reality of the place where the tourist activity takes place and with effect on the perception of the visitors' place value. This article aims to highlight two constructs inherent to the perception of individuals in the construction of the Tourist Place.

Design/methodology/approach: In order to provide a decision-making tool, a conceptual model of a Tourist Place is proposed, validated empirically by a sample of 500 face-to-face surveys at Lisbon International Airport, Portugal. The data were collected on the various departure platforms from non-national tourists in order to record their perceptions of the places they have just visited. Data were subsequently subjected to Factorial Analysis as a validation methodology for the proposed model.

Results: The results led to the identification of five endogenous factors associated with the Sense of Place and four related to the Tourist Destination, which together, allow to produce a useful analysis framework for the activity of the institutional decision makers of the tourism sector. The model has an explained variance of 54% and a KMO of 0.95 which suggests a good fit of the model.

Limitations: In the course of the investigation, some constraints were raised in the data collection. Due to the flow dynamics of Lisbon Airport, the field work plan had to be modified on the spot. This investigation made it possible to address the theme of the Feeling of Place in destination marketing framed in a statistical model, contributing to academic reflection.

Implications: The model presented and its methodology opens ways to deepen the knowledge about destination marketing and can be a useful tool for policy makers associated with the tourism decision. For the private sector, marketing media companies can use this model to develop their strategies.

Originality/value: The Feeling of Place appears in the literature associated with individuals living in the places. This investigation follows the author's doctorate and presents a model for analyzing the perceptions of non-resident individuals, in particular tourists who stay for a short time in the places they visit and produce a certain feeling of place.

 

Keywords: Feeling of Place; Tourist destination; Tourist place; Factor analysis.

 

 


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