Exploring partnering as a tool for developing European opera audiences
Purpose: The paper explores partnering as a tool for developing European opera audiences.
Methodology: The methodology employed in this study is based on a qualitative analysis, which relies on two techniques: content analysis and in-depth interviews. Concretely, the research has been conducted in two different stages: (1) a broad content analysis at European level; (2) an in-depth analysis at a national and local level, interviewing both relevant artistic directors and opera-goers.
Findings: The study reveals that in European opera companies, most collaborations aimed at developing audiences occur when companies seek to diversify audiences, but they seem to be underused when the goal is to broaden and deepen participation.
Practical implications: Although implementation of partnerships with opera houses may have practical difficulties due to the complex programming process involved in the coordination of an opera season, collaboration should not be dismissed as a method for developing opera audiences.
Originality: The paper deals with a main topic in the contemporary cultural management field: the audience development, particularly in the opera domain. Addressing this issue by the role of partnerships is an original way to consider it, as this external perspective is frequently mentioned as one of the most efficient ways of managing in a financial crisis context.
Research limitations: Only 10 in-depth interviews have been conducted so as to capture the voice of opera-goers and they are made in a restrictive context. Therefore, this paper should be considered as an exploratory research that could inspire cultural managers in their practice or that could be the seed for an advanced research.
Keywords: audience development, opera, partnerships
Agid, P. y Tarondeau, J. (2010). The management of opera. An International Comparative Study. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Agid, P. y Tarondeau, J. (2011). Le Management des opéras. Comparaisons internationales. Paris: Descartes & Cie.
Bollo, A., Da Milano, C., Gariboldi, A. y Torch, C. (2017). Final Report - Study on Audience Development - How to place audiences at the centre of cultural organisations. Brussels: European Commission. Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture.
Bouder-Pailler, D. (2007). “Favoriser la souscription d'abonnements dans la consommation culturelle: Le rôle de la conception individuelle du temps.” Decisions Marketing, (47), 21-32.
Brown, A. y Ratzkin, R. (2011). Making sense of audience engagement. San Francisco: Wolfbrown and The San Francisco Foundation.
DiMaggio, P. (1982). “Cultural entrepreneurship in nineteenth-century Boston. Part I.” Media, Culture and Society, 4, 33–50.
Doublet, G. (2003) “Opéra: nouveau public, nouvelles pratiques.” In Le(s) Public(s) de la Culture, O. Donnat and P. Tolila, eds. (p. 215-234). Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.
European Commission. (2012). European Audiences: 2020 and beyond. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Opera Days. (2018). Retrieved on December 16, 2018 from http://www.operadays.eu/.
Fisher, T. C. G. and Preece, S. B. (2002). “Evaluating Performing Arts Audience Overlap.” International Journal of Arts Management, 4(3), 20-32.
Kolb, B. M. (2001). “The Decline of the Subscriber Base: A Study of the Philharmonia Orchestra Audience.” International Journal of Arts Management, 3 (2)
Kotler, P. and Scheff, J. (2004). Marketing de las artes escénicas. Madrid: Fundación Autor.
Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC: Sage.
McCarthy, K. F. and Jinnett, K. (2001). A New Framework for Building Participation in the Arts. Santa Monica: RAND.
McCarthy, K. F., Ondaatje, E. H., Zakaras, L. and Brooks, A. (2004). Gifts of the Muse: Reframing the Debate About the Benefits of the Arts. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
McConachie, B.A. (1988). “New York operagoing, 1825–50: creating an elite social ritual.” American Music, 6 (2), 181–192.
Ostrower, F. (2003). Cultural collaborations. Building partnerships for arts participation. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ostrower, F. (2005). “The Reality Underneath the Buzz of Partnerships. The potentials and pitfalls of partnering.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring, 34-41.
Preece, S. B. (2004). Unlikely bedfellows. Exploring Unique Performing Arts Collaborations. Melbourne: Deakin University.
Proyecto Lóva. (2018). Retrieved on December 16, 2018 from http://proyectolova.es/.
Ropo, A. and Sauer, E. (2003). “Partnerships of Orchestras: Towards Shared Leadership.” International Journal of Arts Management,5 (2), 44-55.
Storey, J. (2003). “The social life of opera.” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 6 (1), 5–35.
Storey, J. (2006). “Inventing opera as art in nineteenth-century Manchester.” International Journal of Cultural Studies, 9 (4), 435–456.
Towse, R. (2005). “La ópera.” In Manual de economía de la cultura, R.
Towse, ed. (p. 567-577). Madrid: Fundación Autor.
Walker, C. (2004). Arts and Non-arts Partnerships. Opportunities, challenges, and strategies. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Walker, C., Boris, E., Jackson, M. and Scott-Melnyk, S. (1999). Community Partnerships for cultural participation: concepts, prospects, and challenges. Early findings report. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute.
Walker-Kuhne, D. (2005). Invitation to the party. Building bridges to the arts, culture and community. New York: Theatre Communications Group, Inc.
Weathington, B. L., Cunningham, C., J.L. and Pittenger, D. J. (2010). Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Wolf, T. and Antoni, G. (2012). More than the sum of its parts: Collaboration & Sustainability in Arts Education. New York / Dallas: National Guild for Community Arts Education / Big Thought.