Relational outcomes of perceived justice in the insurance industry
Purpose: The objective of this paper is to understand the role that perceived justice plays in the insurance industry, as well as its relational outcomes. Thus, the purpose is to help the insurance companies to understand the effects of service recovery rendered when service failure happens. This study seeks to propose and test a framework in the insurance sector for examining the role that perceived justice, with three dimensions: distributive, procedural and interactional, plays in car insurances.
Design/methodology/approach: This investigation proposes a theoretical model tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). A questionnaire survey was developed to explore the relationships between perceived justice, satisfaction, trust, commitment, loyalty and worth-of mouth in the insurance industry. For this study, 744 valid questionnaires were collected from a sample of Portuguese car insurance holders.
Findings: The results show that all three justice dimensions affect satisfaction, with procedural justice showing the strongest relative influence. In turn, satisfaction influences directly loyalty and worth-of-mouth and indirectly through trust and commitment. Satisfaction influences trust. Trust has a direct influence on commitment and has an indirectly impact on loyalty and word-of-mouth, via commitment. Commitment influences loyalty and word-of-mouth. Finally, loyalty affects word-of-mouth.
Originality/Value: In order to address gaps in the literature, the present study developed an integrative model through which three dimensions of perceived justice operate in affecting loyalty and word-of-mouth, via satisfaction, trust and relational commitment. There is a lack of research on the direct and indirect effects of perceived justice on loyalty and word-of-mouth. Therefore, this investigation examines the importance of perceived justice in the car insurance industry, due to being a type of insurance where problems can occur after an accident. We investigate the influence of a good conflict resolution on satisfaction, trust, commitment, and loyalty and word-of-mouth.
Keywords: perceived justice; relational outcomes; insurance industry.
Abtin, A. & Pouramiri, M. (2016). The impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement (Case study: Kerman Iran insurance company). Marketing and Branding Research, 3, 41-49.
Agag, G. & El-Masry, A.A. (2016). Understanding consumer intention to participate in online travel community and effects on consumer intention to purchase travel online and WOM: An integration of innovation diffusion theory and TAM with trust. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 97-111.
Akamavi, R.K., Mohamed, E., Pellman, K. & Xu, Y. (2015). Key determinants of passenger loyalty in the low-cost airline business. Tourism Management, 46, 528-545.
Akbari, M., Kazemi, R. & Haddadi, M. (2016). Relationship marketing and word-of-mouth communications: Examining the mediating role of customer loyalty. Marketing and Branding Research, 3, 63-74.
Altunel, M.C. & Erkut, B. (2015). Cultural tourism in Istanbul: The mediation effect of tourist experience and satisfaction on the relationship between involvement and recommendation intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4, 213–221.
Alves, D., Terres, M.S. & Santos, C.P. (2013), “Custos de mudança e seus efeitos no comprometimento, na intenção de recompra e no boca-a-boca em serviços educacionais”, Revista de Administração e Contabilidade da Unisinos, Vol. 10, Nº4, pp. 355-372.
Anderson, J.C. & Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommend two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423.
Ansari, A. & Riasi, A. (2016). Modelling and evaluating customer loyalty using neural networks: Evidence from startup insurance companies. Future Business Journal, 2, 15–30.
Athavale, A.M., Banahan III, B.F., Bentley, J.P. & West-Strum, D.S. (2015). Antecedents and consequences of pharmacy loyalty behavior. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 9 (1), 36-55.
Aurier, P. & Lanause, G.S. (2012). Impacts of perceived brand relationship orientation on attitudinal loyalty. An application to strong brands in the packaged goods sector. European Journal of Marketing, 46 (11/12), 1602-1627.
Bahri-Ammari, N. & Bilgihan, A. (2017). The effects of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on customer retention: An empirical investigation in the mobile telecom industry in Tunisia. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 37, 89–100.
Barreda, A.A., Bilgihan, A. & Kageyama, Y. (2015). The role of trust in creating positive word of mouth and behavioral intentions: the case of online social networks. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 14, 16–36.
Bettencourt, L.A. (1997). Customer voluntary performance: Customers as partners in service delivery. Journal of Retailing, 73 (3), 383–406.
Bitner, M.J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54, 69-82.
Blodgett, J., Granbois, D. & Walters, R. (1993). The effects of perceived justice on complainants negative word-of-mouth behaviour and repatronage intentions. Journal of Retailing, 69, 399–427.
Blodgett, J.G., Hill, D.J. & Tax, S.S. (1997). The effects of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on post complaint behavior. Journal of Retailing, 73, 185–210.
Bollen, K.A. (1989). Structural Equations With Latent Variables, John Wiley and Sons, USA.
Casidy, R. & Wymer, W. (2016). A risk worth taking: Perceived risk as moderator of satisfaction, loyalty, and willingness-to-pay premium price. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 32, 189–197.
Castaldo, S., Grosso, M., Mallarini, E. & Rindone, M. (2016). The missing path to gain customers loyalty in pharmacy retail: The role of the store in developing satisfaction and trust. Administrative Pharmacy, 12, 699–712.
Castañeda, J.A. (2011). Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty on the Internet. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26 (3), 371-383.
Chan, S.H.J. & Lai, H.Y.I. (2017). Understanding the link between communication satisfaction, perceived justice and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Research, 70, 214–223.
Chang, Y-W. & Chang, Y-H. (2010). Does service recovery affect satisfaction and customer loyalty? An empirical study of airline services. Journal of Air Transport Management, 16, 340-342.
Chaparro-Peláez, J., Hernández-García, A. & Urueña-López, A. (2015). The Role of Emotions and Trust in Service Recovery in Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 10 (2), 77-90.
Choi, B. & Choi, B-J. (2014). The effects of perceived service recovery justice on customer affection, loyalty, and word-of-mouth. European Journal of Marketing, 48(1/2), 108-131.
Churchill, G.A., Jr. (1995), Marketing research: Methodological foundations. Chicago: Dryden Press.
Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86 (2), 278–321.
Cronbach, L.J. (1970). Essentials of psychological testing, New York: Harper and Row.
Curras-Perez, R. & Sanchez-Garcia, I. (2016). Antecedents and consequences of consumer commitment in traditional and low-cost airlines. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33, 899-911.
De Ruyter, K., & Wetzels, M. (1999). Commitment in auditor–client relationships: Antecedents and consequences. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 24, 57-75.
Delgado-Ballester, E., Munuera-Alemán, J.L. & Yagüe-Guillen, M.J. (2003). Development and validation of a brand trust scale”, International Journal of Market Research, 45 (1), 35-54.
Ding, M-C. & Lii, Y-S. (2016). Handling online service recovery: Effects of perceived justice on online games. Telematics and Informatics, 33, 881–895.
Doney, P.M. & Cannon, J.P. (1997). An Examination of the Nature of Trust in Buyer-Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 61 (2), 35-51.
Fang, J.; Shao, Y. & Wen, C. (2016). Transactional quality, relational quality, and consumer e-loyalty: Evidence from SEM and fsQCA. International Journal of Information Management, 36, 1205-1217.
Faryabi, M., Sadeghzadeh, K. & Zakeri, A. (2015), “The Relationship Continuity Model and Customer Loyalty in the Banking Industry: A Case Study of the Maskan Bank of Iran”, Journal of Relationship Marketing, Vol. 14, pp. 37–52.
Fernández-Sabiote, E. & Román, S. (2016). The multichannel customer’s service experience: building satisfaction and trust. Service Business, 10, 423–445.
Fornell, C. & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobserved Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1), 39-50.
Ganesan, S. (1994). Determinants of Long-Term Orientation in Buyer-Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 58 (2), 1-19.
Ganesan, S. & Hess, R. (1997). Dimensions of Levels of Trust: Implications for Commitment to a Relationship. Marketing Letters, 8 (4), 439-448.
Gillani, S.U.A. & Awan, A.G. (2014). Customer Loyalty in Financial Sector: A case study of Commercial Banks in Southern Punjab. International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, 4 (2), 587-606.
Gremler, D. & Gwinner, K.P. (2000). Customer-Employee Rapport in Service Relationships. Journal of Service Research, 3 (1), 82-104.
Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. & Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Han, H. & Hyun, S.S. (2015). Customer retention in the medical tourism industry: Impact of quality, satisfaction, trust, and price reasonableness. Tourism Management, 46, 20-29.
Han, H., Meng, B. & Kim, W. (2017). Bike-traveling as a growing phenomenon: Role of attributes, value, satisfaction, desire, and gender in developing loyalty. Tourism Management, 59, 91-103.
Hansen, T. (2014). The role of trust in financial customer–seller relationships before and after the financial crisis. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 13, 442–452.
Harris, P. & Khatami, N.A. (2017). Antecedents of word of mouth behaviour among female grocery shoppers in Iran. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 8, (1), 2-15.
Hartono, M & Raharjo, H. (2015). Exploring the mediating role of affective and cognitive satisfaction on the effect of service quality on loyalty. Total Quality Management, 26 (9), 971–985.
Homburg, C. & Fürst, A. (2005). How organizational complaint handling drives customer loyalty: an analysis of the mechanistic and the organic approach. Journal of Marketing, 69, 95–114.
Hsu, C-L., Yu, L-C. & Chang, K-C. (2017). Exploring the effects of online customer reviews, regulatory focus, and product type on purchase intention: Perceived justice as a moderator. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 335-346.
Jack, E.P. & Powers, T.L. (2013). Shopping behaviour and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (13–14), 1609–1630.
Jalilvand, M.R., Salimipour, S., Elyasi, M. & Mohammadi, M. (2017). Factors influencing word of mouth behaviour in the restaurant industry. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35 (1), 81-110.
Jones, M.A. & Suh, J. (2000). Transaction-specific satisfaction and overall satisfaction: an empirical analysis. Journal of Services Marketing, 14 (2), 147-159.
Jung, Y.J. & Seock, Y-K. (2017). Effect of service recovery on customers’ perceived justice, satisfaction, and word-of-mouth intentions on online shopping websites. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 37, 23–30.
Khan, Z., Ferguson, D. & Pérez, A. (2015). Customer responses to CSR in the Pakistani banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 33 (4), 471-493.
Karriker, J. H., & Williams, M. L. (2009). Organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior: A mediated multifoci model?. Journal of Management, 35 (1), 112–135.
Kashif, M., Rehman, M.A. & Pilelienė, L. (2016). Customer perceived service quality and loyalty in Islamic banques. A collectivist cultural perspective. The TQM Journal, 28 (1), 62-78.
Kaufman, P., Jayachandran, S. & Rose, R.L. (2006). The Role of Relational Embeddedness in Retail Buyers’ Selection of New Products. Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (4), 580-587.
Kim, M. & Qu, H. (2014. Travelers’ behavioral intention toward hotel self-service kiosks usage. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26 (2), 225-245.
Kim, M.K., Wong, S.F., Chang, Y. & Park, J-H. (2016). Determinants of customer loyalty in the Korean smartphone market: Moderating effects of usage characteristics. Telematics and Informatics, 33, 936–949.
Kim, T., Kim, W.G. & Kim, H-B. (2009). The effects of perceived justice on recovery satisfaction, trust, word-of-mouth, and revisit intention in upscale hotels. Tourism Management, 30, 51–62.
Kollat, J. & Farache, F. (2017). Achieving consumer trust on Twitter via CSR communication. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 34 (6), 505–514.
Konovsky, M.A. (2000). Understanding Procedural Justice and Its Impact on Business Organizations. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 489-511.
Kuo & Wu (2012), “Satisfaction and post-purchase intentions with service recovery of online shopping websites: Perspectives on perceived justice and emotions”, International Journal of Information Management, 32, 127– 138.
Lai, L-H., Liu, C-T. & Lin, J.T. (2011). The moderating effects of switching costs and inertia on the customer satisfaction-retention link: auto liability insurance service in Taiwan. Insurance Markets and Companies: Analyses and Actuarial Computations, 2 (1), 69-78.
Leaniz, P.M.G. & Rodríguez, I.R.B. (2015). Exploring the Antecedents of Hotel Customer Loyalty: A Social Identity Perspective. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 24, 1-23.
Lee, D., Moon, J. Kim, Y.J. & Yi, M.Y. (2015). Antecedents and consequences of mobile phone usability: Linking simplicity and interactivity to satisfaction, trust, and brand loyalty. Information & Management, 52, 295-304.
Lee, W.O. & Wong, L.S. (2016). Determinants of Mobile Commerce Customer Loyalty in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 60 – 67.
Lee, Y. (2016). Relationship Quality and Its Causal Link to Service Value, Satisfaction, and Word-of-Mouth. Services Marketing Quarterly, 37 (3), 171-184.
Levesque, T.J. & McDougall, G.H. (2000). Service problems and recovery strategies: an experimente. Can. J. Adm. Sci./Rev. Can. Des. Sci. De. l′Adm. 17 (1), 20–37.
Li, S-C. (2013). Exploring the Relationships among Service Quality, Customer Loyalty and Word-Of-Mouth for Private Higher Education in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Management Review, 18 (4), 375-389.
Liao, Y-W., Wang, Y-S. & Yeh, C-H. (2014). Exploring the relationship between intentional and behavioral loyalty in the context of e-tailing. Internet Research, 24 (5), 668-686.
Liljander, V. & Strandvik, T. (1995). The nature of customer relationships in services. Advances in Services Marketing and Management, 4, 141–167.
Lombart, C. & Louis, D. (2014). A study of the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility and price image on retailer personality and consumers´ reactions (satisfaction, trust and loyalty to the retailer). Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 630–642.
Lopes, E.L. & Silva, M.A. (2015). The effect of justice in the history of loyalty: A study in failure recovery in the retail context. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 24, 110–120.
Loureiro, S.M.C., Kaufmann, H.R. & Rabino, S. (2014). Intentions to use and recommend to others. An empirical study of online banking practices in Portugal and Austria. Online Information Review, 38 (2), 186-208.
Luhmann, N. (1988). Familiarity, Confidence, Trust: problems and alternatives, in Gambetta.
Mansori, S., Ismail, G.G. & Tyng, Z.M.M. (2014). Service Recovery, Satisfaction and Customers’ Post Service Behavior in the Malaysian Banking Sector. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 2 (1), 5-20.
Marinkovic, V.M. & Obradovik, V. (2015), “Customers’ emotional reactions in the banking industry”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 33, Nº3, pp. 243-260.
Martín Ruiz, D., Gremler, D.D., J.H. Washburn & Carrión, G.C. 2008). Service value revisited: Specifying a higher-order, formative measure. Journal of Business Research, 61 (12), 1278-1291.
Martínez, P. (2015). Customer loyalty: exploring its antecedents from a green marketing perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27 (5), 896-917.
Matos, S.A. & Reis, R.P. (2013). The antecedents of complaint behaviour for Brazilian and French consumers of services. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37, 327–336.
Maxham III, J.G. & Netemeyer, R.G. (2002). Modelling customer perceptions of complaint handling over time: the effects of perceived justice on satisfaction and intent. Journal of Retailing, 78 (4), 239-252.
Maxham III, J.G. & Netemeyer, R.G. (2003). Firms reap what they sow: The effects of shared values and perceived organizational justice on customers’ evaluations of complaint handling. Journal of Marketing, 67 (1), 46-62.
McColl-Kennedy, J.R. & Sparks, B.A. (2003). Application of fairness theory to service failure and service recovery. Journal of Service Research. 5, 251–266.
Melewar, T.C., Foroudi, P., Gupta, S., Kitchen, P.J. & Foroudi, M.M. (2017). Integrating identity, strategy and communications for trust, loyalty and commitment. European Journal of Marketing, 51 (3), 572-604.
Menidjel, C., Benhabib, A. & Bilgihan, A. (2017). Examining the moderating role of personality traits in the relationship between brand trust and brand loyalty. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26 (6), 631-649.
Moorman, C., Deshphandé, R. & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors Affecting Trust in Market Research Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), 81-101.
Morgan, R.M. & Hunt, S.D. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 20-38.
Mukherjee, A. & Nath, P. (2007). Role of electronic trust in online retailing: A reexamination of the commitment-trust theory. European Journal of Marketing, 41 (9/10), 1173–1202.
Mutlu, H.M. & Tas, I. (2012). Antecedents of Insurance Agents’ Loyalty for Different Forms of Transaction-Specific Investments in the Turkish Insurance Sector. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 11, 215–232.
Myrden, S.E. & Kelloway, E.K. (2015). Leading to customer loyalty: a daily test of the service-profit chain. Journal of Services Marketing, 29 (6/7), 585-598.
Nadiri, H. (2016), “Diagnosing the impact of retail bank customers’ perceived justice on their service recovery satisfaction and postpurchase behaviours: an empirical study in financial centre of middle east”, Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29 (1), 193–216.
Nikbin, D., Hyun, Iranmanesh, S.S. & Foroughi, B. (2014). Effects of Perceived Justice for Coaches on Athletes’ Trust, Commitment, and Perceived Performance: A Study of Futsal and Volleyball Players. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9 (4), 561-578.
Nunnaly, J.C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill.
Oliver & Swan (1989a). Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and satisfaction in Transactions: A Field Survey Approach. Journal of Marketing, 53 (2), 21-35.
Oliver & Swan (1989b). Equity and Desconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (3), 372- 383.
Ou, W. M., Shih, C. M. & Chen, C. Y. (2015). Effects of ethical sales behaviour on satisfaction, trust, commitment, retention and words-of-mouth. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 25 (4), 673-686.
Palmatier, R.W., Scheer, L.K. & Steenkamp, J-B. E.M. (2007). Customer Loyalty to Whom? Managing the Benefits and Risks of Salesperson-Owned Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Research, 44 (2), 185-199.
Park, J., Choy, J. & Yeu, M. (2016). Relationship between corporate philanthropy and consumer loyalty – the mediating role of gratitude, trust and commitment: South korean consumer perspectives. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 20 (1), 1-17.
Pathak, D.S., Kucukarslan, S. & Segal, R. (1994). Explaining patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction in high blood pressure prescription drug market: an application of equity theory and disconfirmation paradigm. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior, 7, 53-73.
Patterson, P.G., Johnson, L.W. & Spreng, R.A. (1997). Modeling the determinants of customer satisfaction for business-to-business professional services. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25, 4-17.
Paulssen, M., Roulet, R. & Wilke, S. (2014). Risk as moderator of the trust-loyalty relationship. European Journal of Marketing, 48 (5/6), 964-981.
Pereira, G.P., Salgueiro, M.F. & Rita, P. (2016). Online purchase determinants of loyalty: The mediating effect of satisfaction in tourism. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 279–291.
Picón, A., Castro, I. & Rodán, J.L. (2014). The relationship between satisfaction and loyalty: A mediator analysis. Journal of Business Research, 67, 746–751.
Poole, S.M. (2017). Developing relationships with school customers: the role of market orientation. International Journal of Educational Management, 31 (7), 1054-1068.
Rai, A.K. & Medhta, S. (2013). The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation in Life Insurance Context. Journal of Competitiveness, 5 (2), 139-163.
Rajaobelina, L., Ricard, L., Bergeron, J. & Toufaily, E. (2014). An integrative model of installed online trust in the financial services industry. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 9 (3), 186-197.
Rashid, M.H.A., Ahmad, F.S. & Othman, A.K. (2014). Does Service Recovery Affect Customer Satisfaction? A Study on Co-Created Retail Industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, 455 – 460.
Rialti, R., Zollo, L., Pellegrini, M.L. & Ciappei, C. (2017). Exploring the antecedents of brand loyalty and electronic word of mouth in social-media-based brand communities: Do gender diferences matter?. Journal of Global Marketing, 30 (3), 147-160.
Río-Lanza, A.B., Vázquez-Casielles, R. & Díaz-Martín, A.M. (2009). Satisfaction with service recovery, Perceived justice and emotional responses. Journal of Business Research, 62 (8), 775-781.
Roy, S.K., Lassar, W.M. & Butaney, G.T. (2014). The mediating impact of stickiness and loyalty on word-of-mouth promotion of retail websites. A consumer perspective. European Journal of Marketing, 48 (9/10), 1828-1849.
Ruiz, B., Esteban, A. & Gutiérrez, S. (2014). Determinants of reputation of leading Spanish financial institutions among their customers in a context of economic crisis. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 17, 259-278.
Sardar, S. & Shahraki, M. (2015). Checking the level of brand equity's impact on the customers ‘satisfaction and loyalty in the iran insurance company. International Review of Management and Business Research, 4 (3), 669-676.
Schoefer, K. & Ennew, C. (2005). The impact of perceived justice on consumers’ emotional responses to service complaint experiences. Journal of Services Marketing, 19 (5), 261-270.
Sirakaya-Turk, E., Ekinci, Y. & Martin, D. (2015). The efficacy of shopping value in predicting destination loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 68, 1878–1885.
Smith, A.K., Bolton, R.N., & Wagner, J. (1999). A model of customer satisfaction with service encounters involving failure and recovery. Journal of Marketing Research. 36, 356–372.
Söderlund, M. (1998). Customer satisfaction and its consequences on customer behaviour revisited. The impact of different levels of satisfaction on word-of-mouth, feedback to the supplier and loyalty. International Journal of service Industry Management, 9 (2), 169-188.
Su, L., Wanson, S.R., Chinchanachokchai, S., Maxwell K.H. & Chen, X. (2016). Reputation and intentions: The role of satisfaction, identification, and commitment. Journal of Business Research, 69, pp. 3261–3269.
Suki, N.M. (2014). Passenger satisfaction with airline service quality in Malaysia: A structural equation modeling approach. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 10, 26–32.
Tax, S.S., Brown, S.W. & Chandrashekaran, M. (1998). Customer Evaluations of Service Complaint Experiences: Implications for Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 62 (2), 60-76.
Tektas, O.O. (2017). Perceived justice and post-recovery satisfaction in banking service failures: Do commitment types matter?. Service Business, 11, 851–870.
Thakur, R. (2014). What keeps mobile banking customers loyal?. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 32 (7), 628-646.
Tournois, L. (2015). Does the value manufacturers (brands) create translate into enhanced reputation? A multi-sector examination of the value–satisfaction–loyalty–reputation chain. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 26, 83–96.
Varela-Neira, C., Vázquez-Casielles, R. & Iglesias-Argüelles, V. (2008). The influence of emotions on customer’s cognitive evaluations and satisfaction in a service failure and recovery context. The Service Industries Journal, 28 (4), 497-512.
Voorhees, C.M. & Brady, M.K., 2005. A service perspective on the drivers of complaint intentions. Journal Service Research, 8 (2), 192–204.
Xu, C., Peak, D. & Prybutok, V. (2015). A customer value, satisfaction, and loyalty perspective of mobile application recommendations. Decision Support Systems, 79, 171–183.
Xu, Z. & Zhang, J. (2016). Antecedents and consequences of place attachment: A comparison of Chinese and Western urban tourists in Hangzhou, China. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 5, 86–96.
Wang, E. S-T. & Chang, S-Y. (2013). Creating Positive Word-of-Mouth Promotion Through Service Recovery Strategies. Services Marketing Quarterly, 34, 103–114.
Watson, G.F., Beck, J.T., Henderson, C.M., & Palmatier, R.W. (2015). Building, measuring, and profiting from customer loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 790–825.
Wu, C-W. (2016). Destination loyalty modeling of the global tourism. Journal of Business Research, 69, 2213–2219.
Wu, I-L. (2013). The antecedents of customer satisfaction and its link to complaint intentions in online shopping: An integration of justice, technology, and trust. International Journal of Information Management, 33, 166– 176.
Wu, I-L. & Huang, C-Y. (2015). Analysing complaint intentions in online shopping: the antecedents of justice and technology use and the mediator of customer satisfaction. Behaviour & Information Technology, 340 (1), 69–80.
Yang, S. (2015). Understanding B2B customer loyalty in the mobile telecommunication industry: a look at dedication and constraint. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 30(2), 117–128.
Yang, Z. & Peterson, R.T. (2004). Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty: The Role of Switching Costs. Psychology & Marketing, 21 (10), 799-822.
Yap, K.B., Wong, D.H., Loh, C. & Bak, R. (2010), Offline and online banking – where to draw the line when building trust in e-banking.International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28 (1), 27-46.
Zeithaml, V., Berry, L. & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality. Journal of Marketing, 60 (2), 31-46.