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Author Guidelines


All files should be submitted as a Word document.


Article Length

Articles should be between 4000 and 8000 words in length, excluding references and appendices.


Article Title

A title of not more than ten words should be provided.


Article Title Page

An Article Title Page should be submitted alongside each individual article. This should include:

• Article Title

• Author Details (see below)

• Acknowledgements

• Structured Abstract (see below)

• Keywords (see below)


Author Details

Details should be supplied on the Article Title Page including:

• Given name and family name

• Affiliation of each author

• Mailing address

• E-mail address of the corresponding author


Structured Abstract

Authors must supply a structured abstract on the Article Title Page:

• Purpose (mandatory)

• Design/methodology/approach (mandatory)

• Findings (mandatory)

• Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

• Practical implications (if applicable)

• Originality/value (mandatory)

Maximum is 250 words in total (including keywords and article classification, see below).



Please provide 3 to 6 keywords on the Article Title Page.


Article Classification

Categorize your paper on the Article Title Page, under one of these classifications:

• Research paper

• Conceptual paper

• Literature review



Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the distinction between the hierarchy of headings.

The preferred format is for first level headings to be presented in bold format and subsequent sub-headings to be presented in italics.



Notes or Endnotes should be used only if absolutely necessary and must be identified in the text by consecutive numbers, enclosed in square brackets and listed at the end of the article.


Research Funding

Authors must declare all sources of external research funding in their article and a statement to this effect should appear in the Acknowledgements section.



All Figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, web pages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted in electronic form.

All Figures should be of high quality, legible and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals. Graphics may be supplied in colour to facilitate their appearance on the online database.

• Figures created in MS Word, MS PowerPoint, MS Excel, Illustrator should be supplied in their native formats. Electronic figures created in other applications should be copied from the origination software and pasted into a blank MS Word document or saved and imported into an MS Word document or alternatively create a .pdf file from the origination software.

• Figures which cannot be supplied in as the above are acceptable in the standard image formats which are: .pdf, .tif, .jpeg, or .bmp at a resolution of at least 300dpi.

• Photographic images should be submitted electronically and of high quality. They should be saved as .tif or .jpeg files at a resolution of at least 300dpi and at least 10cm wide. Digital camera settings should be set at the highest resolution/quality possible.



Tables should be typed and included in the main body of the article.

Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have corresponding explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.


References to other publications must be in APA 6th edition style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. This is very important in an electronic environment because it enables your readers to exploit the Reference Linking facility on the database and link back to the works you have cited through CrossRef.

You should cite publications in the text: (Adams, 2006) using the first named author's name or (Adams and Brown, 2006) citing both names of two, or (Adams et al., 2006), when there are three or more authors. At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied: For books Surname, Initials (year), Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication.

e.g. Drucker, Peter F. (2009), The Effective Executive (Harperbusiness Essentials), HarperCollins, New York, NY.

For book chapters Surname, Initials (year), "Chapter title", Editor's Surname, Initials, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, pages.

e.g. Enste, D. H. (2003), “Shadow Economy and Institutional Change in Transition Countries”, in The informal economy in EU accession in the countries: size, scope, trends and challenges to the process of EU enlargement, B. Belev (Ed.), Centre for the Study of Democracy, Sofia, pp. 81-113.

For journals Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", Journal Name, volume, number, pages.

e.g. Barnett, M. L. (2014), "Why Stakeholders Ignore Firm Misconduct: A Cognitive View", Journal of Management, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 676-702.

For published conference proceedings Surname, Initials (year of publication), "Title of paper", in Surname, Initials (Ed.), Title of published proceeding which may include place and date(s) held, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

e.g. Susanti, C. S. (2013), "The Effect of Product Quality and Service Quality Towards Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in Traditional Restaurants in East Java", Mandal, P., in Proceedings of the International Conference on Managing the Asian Century - ICMAC 2013, Singapore, 2013, Springer Singapore, pp. 383-393.

For unpublished conference proceedings Surname, Initials (year), "Title of paper", paper presented at Name of Conference, date of conference, place of conference, available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers Surname, Initials (year), "Title of article", working paper [number if available], Institution or organization, Place of organization, date.

e.g. Correia-da-Silva, J. and Pinho, J. (2012), "The profit-sharing rule that maximizes sustainability of cartel agreements", working paper 463, FEP Working Paper, University of Porto, August.



Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

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ISSN 2183-5594